How Pumped Storage Power Plants Work (Hydropower)
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This video explains how pumped storage hydroelectric power stations work, what their main components are and their operating characteristics.
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This type of power plant converts potential energy to electrical energy, or, electrical energy to potential energy. They achieve this by allowing water to flow from a high elevation to a lower elevation, or, by pumping water from a low elevation to a higher elevation. When water flows to a lower elevation, the power plant generates electricity. When water is pumped to a higher elevation, the power plant creates a store of potential energy. Pumped storage plants use Francis turbines because they can act as both a hydraulic pump and hydraulic turbine.
Pumped storage power plants are used to balance the frequency, voltage and power demands within the electrical grid. Pump storage plants are often utilised to add additional megawatt capacity to the grid during period of high power demand, for this reason, pumped storage plants are referred to as ‘peaking’ plants.
Because pumped storage plants can provide electrical grid operators with power ‘ondemand’, they have a high level of dispatchability (the ability to provide power to the grid as needed).
Irrespective geographical location, all pumped storage plants require an upper and lower reservoir. The difference in elevation between the upper and lower reservoirs is referred to as the ‘head’ (head of pressure) and it must be significant in order for the plant to operate efficiently.
A penstock connects the upper reservoir to a Francis turbine located in the power house. A draft tube and tail race connects the Francis turbine to the lower reservoir.
Operation Generating Power (Electricity)
Water flows from the upper reservoir, through the penstock, and to the Francis turbine. As the water passes over the Francis runner blades, a pressure differential is created that causes torque (rotary force) to be applied to the runner. The runner begins to rotate.
The turbine runner is connected on a common shaft to an electrical generator. As the runner rotates, so too does the generator rotor. As the rotor rotates through the electromagnetic field within the generator, it induces current in the stator windings and electrical current begins to flow. The electrical current is usually then dispatched to end consumers via a switchyard and electrical transformer.
Water discharged from the turbine runner enters into a draft tube where some of the kinetic energy is recovered and converted to potential energy; the water then enters the tail race and is discharged to the lower reservoir.
In this example, the potential energy of water was converted by the turbine runner into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy was transferred on a common shaft to a generator, which converted the mechanical energy to electrical energy. The entire process can be continuous until the upper reservoir is emptied.
Operation – Storing Potential Energy
Water is pumped from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir by the Francis turbine runner. The flow path is the same as when generating electricity, except the flow direction is reversed.
Pumped Storage Economics
Pumped storage plants rely upon the varying price of electricity to make a profit. Many thermal power plants (coal fired, gas fired etc.) cannot increase or reduce their MW output quickly because this would place large thermal stresses on the power plant components (water tube boiler, piping etc.). For this reason, thermal power plants produce almost as much power at night, as they do during the day.
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What is HYDROPOWER? What does HYDROPOWER mean? HYDROPOWER meaning, definition & explanation
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What is HYDROPOWER? What does HYDROPOWER mean? HYDROPOWER meaning HYDROPOWER definition HYDROPOWER pronunciation HYDROPOWER explanation How to pronounce HYDROPOWER?
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0/ license.
Hydropower or water power (from the Greek: ????, “water” ) is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, sawmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, and ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance.
In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. Cragside in Northumberland was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878 and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower.
Since the early 20th century, the term has been used almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power. International institutions such as the World Bank view hydropower as a means for economic development without adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, but dams can have significant negative social and environmental impacts.
As with other forms of economic activity, hydropower projects can have both a positive and a negative environmental and social impact, because the construction of a dam and power plant, along with the impounding of a reservoir, creates certain social and physical changes.
A number of tools have been developed to assist projects.
Most new hydropower project must undergo an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment. This provides a base line understand of the pre project conditions, estimates potential impacts and puts in place management plans to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for impacts.
The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is another tool which can be used to promote and guide more sustainable hydropower projects. It is a methodology used to audit the performance of a hydropower project across more than twenty environmental, social, technical and economic topics. A Protocol assessment provides a rapid sustainability health check. It does not replace an environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA), which takes place over a much longer period of time, usually as a mandatory regulatory requirement.
The World Commission on Dams final report describes a framework for planning water and energy projects that is intended to protect damaffected people and the environment, and ensure that the benefits from dams are more equitably distributed.
IFC’s Environmental and Social Performance Standards define IFC clients’ responsibilities for managing their environmental and social risks.
The World Bank’s safeguard policies are used by the Bank to help identify, avoid, and minimize harms to people and the environment caused by investment projects.
The Equator Principles is a risk management framework, adopted by financial institutions, for determining, assessing and managing environmental and social risk in projects.
Hydropower Screw Turbines | How it works
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We all know the traditional application of the archimedean screw pump where water is pumped up from a lower to a higher level. The reversal of its function provides an efficient means of saving energy. The main advantage of a screw pump is that it is taylor made to the specific installation and therefore extremely efficient for a wide range.
An efficient use of water power is already achieved at a level difference of 1 meter and a capacity of 500 l/sec. The largest capacity and level difference for hydropower screws is as much as 15000 l/sec. at 10 meter.
Benefits of hydropower screws:
• Highest efficiency (up to 86%)
• Simple installation
• Easy implementation in existing situations
• Extremely fish friendly
• Insensitive to clogging
• Low maintenance costs
• Long life time
• Improvement of water quality
• 24/24 energy supply
• Active flow control without extra losses
• Possibility to switch over to pump function
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The Price of Damming our Rivers | Hydropower Impact
Hydropower – using water stored in dams to generate electricity – is often touted as a clean, green energy source. But the environmental costs of constructing even a single dam can be enormous, with huge impacts felt across entire river ecosystems. ↠Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/c/TerraMaterOfficial?sub_confirmation=1
This video, in collaboration with Matt Ferrell, takes a closer look at some of the farreaching consequences of hydroelectric dams and asks what can be done to develop this technology for a better balance between energy and conservation.
Check out Undecided with Matt Ferrell, for more detail on the latest developments in hydropower technology: 👉🏽 https://youtu.be/3nBkx3V9E48
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Take action to save wild rivers in Macedonia & Bosnia!
Producer: Katrin Blaß
Exec. Producer: PhilipJaime Alcazar
Motion Graphics: Jörg Eisenprobst
Voice Over: Sophie Kozeluh
Music: RedBull Audio Library
Sound Design: Hupo Weninger
 “Dams and protected areas: Quantifying the spatial and temporal extent of global dam construction within protected areas”, Michele L. Thieme et. al; A Journal of the Society of the Conservation Society (2020)
“Mapping the world’s freeflowing rivers”, G. Grill et. all; Nature volume 569, pages215–221 (2019)
“Empirical trends and characteristics of existing and removed dams in the United States”, Zbigniew Grabowski; River Research and Applications (2018)
“Climate Impacts of Hydropower: Enormous Differences among Facilities and over Time”, Ilissa B. Ocko et. al; Environmental and Science Technology (2018)
“Hopes for a Fish Revival as a Dam Is Demolished”, New York Times
“Reducing greenhouse gas emissions of Amazon hydropower with strategic dam planning”, Nature (2019)
Phys.org: “Study finds big savings in removing dams over repairs” (2019)
The River Collective: “Clogging the Earth´s arteries: River damming changes biogeochemical cycles”
U.S. Environmental Community and Hydropower Industry Issue Joint Statement of Collaboration: “U.S. Hydropower Climate Solution & Conservation Challenge”, (2020)
What is SCADA?
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The SCADA acronym stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.
A SCADA system is a collection of both software and hardware components that allow supervision and control of plants, both locally and remotely.
The structural design of a standard SCADA system starts with Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and/or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs).
As you know, RTUs and PLCs are microprocessors that communicate and interact with field devices such as valves, pumps, and HMI’s.
That communication data is routed from the processors to the SCADA computers, where the software interprets and displays the data allowing for operators to analyze and react to system events.
Before SCADA, plant personnel had to monitor and control industrial processes via selector switches, push buttons, and dials for analog signals.
This meant that plants had to maintain personnel on site, during production, in order to control the processes.
As manufacturing grew and sites became more remote in nature, relays and timers were used to assist in the supervision and control of processes.
With these devices employed, fewer plant personnel were required to be on site in order to oversee and control operations.
While relays and timers did provide some level of automation, the panels required for these devices took up valuable real estate, troubleshooting was a nightmare, and reconfiguring was difficult at best.
These issues, in conjunction with the need to grow even larger industrial plants, helped to facilitate the birth of automation.
Controlling industrial plants via processors became a reality in the 1950s. Gas and oil, utilities, and manufacturing were major users of these new technologies and supervisory control.
Another decade later the term SCADA was used to describe systems with PLC’s and microprocessors that were being used for the monitoring and control of automated processes on an even greater scale than ever before. SCADA, back then, was anything but practical.
In the next couple of decades, the ’80s and 90s, with computer systems getting smaller, the advent of Local Area Networking (LAN), and HMI software, SCADA systems were able to connect to related systems.
Later in the ’90s and 2000s, SCADA began to implement open system architectures with communication protocols that were not vendor specific.
As you can imagine, this opened up SCADA’s ability to connect with varying vendors. This newer, more improved SCADA was then called a networked SCADA system.
Current day SCADA systems have adapted to the changing technologies and have a great advantage over the older SCADA systems.
With the adoption of modern IT standards such as SQL and webbased applications, today’s SCADA allows for realtime plant information to be accessed from anywhere around the world.
Having this data at the operator’s fingertips facilitates improved plant operations allowing for responses to SCADA system queues based on field collected data and system analysis.
Essentially, SCADA is a collection of hardware and software components.
This collection of components begins with realtime data collected from plant floor devices such as pumps, valves, and transmitters.
These components don’t have to be from a particular vendor, they just need to have a communication protocol that the processor can utilize.
Data collected from the field devices is then passed to the processors such as PLCs. From the processor, the data is distributed to a system of networked devices. These devices may be HMIs, enduser computers, and servers.
On the HMI and enduser computer, graphical representations of the operations exist for operator interactions such as running pumps and opening valves.
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Năng lượng là gì và nó đến từ đâu? What is energy and where does it come from?
Năng lượng là gì và nó đến từ đâu? Có phải tất cả chất dinh dưỡng đa lượng hay vi lượng đều cung cấp một nguồn năng lượng như nhau? Nếu bạn hiểu rõ về năng lượng, thì bạn sẽ tự tin lựa chọn và bổ sung những nguồn năng lượng bền vững, lành mạnh cho cơ thể. Từ đó giúp cơ thể thêm khỏe bền và đẹp tươi hơn mỗi ngày.
What is energy and where does it come from? Do all macro and micronutrients provide the same type of energy? When you understand the source of energy, you will confidently choose and supplement sustainable, healthy energy sources for the body. This will bring you durable strength and fresh beauty every day.
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What is HYDROELECTRICITY? What does HYDROELECTRICITY mean? HYDROELECTRICITY meaning
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What is HYDROELECTRICITY? What does HYDROELECTRICITY mean? HYDROELECTRICITY meaning HYDROELECTRICITY definition HYDROELECTRICITY explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0/ license.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world’s total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.
Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the AsiaPacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use.
The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatthour. With a dam and reservoir it is also a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical and horizontalaxis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world’s first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U.S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U.S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U.S. alone.
At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for largescale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) and the Bonneville Power Administration (1937) were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U.S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was also involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dam’s initial 1,345 MW power station was the world’s largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; it was eclipsed by the 6809 MW Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would eventually supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Paraguay and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity. The United States currently has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, which is 49% of its renewable electricity.
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Tesla Turbine | The interesting physics behind it
The maverick engineer Nikola Tesla made his contribution in the mechanical engineering field too. Look at one of his favorite inventions — a bladeless turbine, or Tesla Turbine. The Tesla turbine had a simple, unique design, yet it was able to beat the efficiency levels of steam turbines at that time. Normal turbines are complex in design, with blades of complicated geometry and stator parts. Nikola Tesla once said the Tesla turbine is his favorite invention and he even claimed an efficiency level of 97% for this turbine. Let’s start a design journey to understand this interesting piece of technology, and towards the end we will also verify Tesla’s efficiency claim.
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