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🔴[Trực Tiếp] Sóc Lọ Là Gì.?Lợi Và Hại Của Sóc Lọ Thường Xuyên- Linh Lê La | hydroelectric là gì

🔴[Trực Tiếp] Sóc Lọ Là Gì.?Lợi Và Hại Của Sóc Lọ Thường Xuyên- Linh Lê La

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🔴[Trực Tiếp] Sóc Lọ Là Gì.?Lợi Và Hại Của Sóc Lọ Thường Xuyên- Linh Lê La

What is SCADA?

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The SCADA acronym stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition.

A SCADA system is a collection of both software and hardware components that allow supervision and control of plants, both locally and remotely.

The structural design of a standard SCADA system starts with Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and/or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs).

As you know, RTUs and PLCs are microprocessors that communicate and interact with field devices such as valves, pumps, and HMI’s.

That communication data is routed from the processors to the SCADA computers, where the software interprets and displays the data allowing for operators to analyze and react to system events.

Before SCADA, plant personnel had to monitor and control industrial processes via selector switches, push buttons, and dials for analog signals.

This meant that plants had to maintain personnel on site, during production, in order to control the processes.

As manufacturing grew and sites became more remote in nature, relays and timers were used to assist in the supervision and control of processes.

With these devices employed, fewer plant personnel were required to be on site in order to oversee and control operations.

While relays and timers did provide some level of automation, the panels required for these devices took up valuable real estate, troubleshooting was a nightmare, and reconfiguring was difficult at best.

These issues, in conjunction with the need to grow even larger industrial plants, helped to facilitate the birth of automation.

Controlling industrial plants via processors became a reality in the 1950s. Gas and oil, utilities, and manufacturing were major users of these new technologies and supervisory control.

Another decade later the term SCADA was used to describe systems with PLC’s and microprocessors that were being used for the monitoring and control of automated processes on an even greater scale than ever before. SCADA, back then, was anything but practical.

In the next couple of decades, the ’80s and 90s, with computer systems getting smaller, the advent of Local Area Networking (LAN), and HMI software, SCADA systems were able to connect to related systems.

Later in the ’90s and 2000s, SCADA began to implement open system architectures with communication protocols that were not vendor specific.

As you can imagine, this opened up SCADA’s ability to connect with varying vendors. This newer, more improved SCADA was then called a networked SCADA system.

Current day SCADA systems have adapted to the changing technologies and have a great advantage over the older SCADA systems.

With the adoption of modern IT standards such as SQL and webbased applications, today’s SCADA allows for realtime plant information to be accessed from anywhere around the world.

Having this data at the operator’s fingertips facilitates improved plant operations allowing for responses to SCADA system queues based on field collected data and system analysis.

Essentially, SCADA is a collection of hardware and software components.

This collection of components begins with realtime data collected from plant floor devices such as pumps, valves, and transmitters.

These components don’t have to be from a particular vendor, they just need to have a communication protocol that the processor can utilize.

Data collected from the field devices is then passed to the processors such as PLCs. From the processor, the data is distributed to a system of networked devices. These devices may be HMIs, enduser computers, and servers.

On the HMI and enduser computer, graphical representations of the operations exist for operator interactions such as running pumps and opening valves.

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RealPars SCADA Telemetry

What is SCADA?

What is HYDROELECTRICITY? What does HYDROELECTRICITY mean? HYDROELECTRICITY meaning

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What is HYDROELECTRICITY? What does HYDROELECTRICITY mean? HYDROELECTRICITY meaning HYDROELECTRICITY definition HYDROELECTRICITY explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0/ license.

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world’s total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.

Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the AsiaPacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use.

The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatthour. With a dam and reservoir it is also a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.

Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks. In the mid1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical and horizontalaxis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world’s first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U.S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U.S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U.S. alone.

At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas. Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for largescale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) and the Bonneville Power Administration (1937) were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U.S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was also involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.

Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dam’s initial 1,345 MW power station was the world’s largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; it was eclipsed by the 6809 MW Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would eventually supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Paraguay and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity. The United States currently has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, which is 49% of its renewable electricity.

What is HYDROELECTRICITY? What does HYDROELECTRICITY mean? HYDROELECTRICITY meaning

How Pumped Storage Power Plants Work (Hydropower)

This video explains how pumped storage hydroelectric power stations work, what their main components are and their operating characteristics.

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▶️Introduction

This type of power plant converts potential energy to electrical energy, or, electrical energy to potential energy. They achieve this by allowing water to flow from a high elevation to a lower elevation, or, by pumping water from a low elevation to a higher elevation. When water flows to a lower elevation, the power plant generates electricity. When water is pumped to a higher elevation, the power plant creates a store of potential energy. Pumped storage plants use Francis turbines because they can act as both a hydraulic pump and hydraulic turbine.

Pumped storage power plants are used to balance the frequency, voltage and power demands within the electrical grid. Pump storage plants are often utilised to add additional megawatt capacity to the grid during period of high power demand, for this reason, pumped storage plants are referred to as ‘peaking’ plants.

Because pumped storage plants can provide electrical grid operators with power ‘ondemand’, they have a high level of dispatchability (the ability to provide power to the grid as needed).

Components
Irrespective geographical location, all pumped storage plants require an upper and lower reservoir. The difference in elevation between the upper and lower reservoirs is referred to as the ‘head’ (head of pressure) and it must be significant in order for the plant to operate efficiently.

A penstock connects the upper reservoir to a Francis turbine located in the power house. A draft tube and tail race connects the Francis turbine to the lower reservoir.

Operation Generating Power (Electricity)
Water flows from the upper reservoir, through the penstock, and to the Francis turbine. As the water passes over the Francis runner blades, a pressure differential is created that causes torque (rotary force) to be applied to the runner. The runner begins to rotate.
The turbine runner is connected on a common shaft to an electrical generator. As the runner rotates, so too does the generator rotor. As the rotor rotates through the electromagnetic field within the generator, it induces current in the stator windings and electrical current begins to flow. The electrical current is usually then dispatched to end consumers via a switchyard and electrical transformer.

Water discharged from the turbine runner enters into a draft tube where some of the kinetic energy is recovered and converted to potential energy; the water then enters the tail race and is discharged to the lower reservoir.

In this example, the potential energy of water was converted by the turbine runner into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy was transferred on a common shaft to a generator, which converted the mechanical energy to electrical energy. The entire process can be continuous until the upper reservoir is emptied.

Operation – Storing Potential Energy
Water is pumped from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir by the Francis turbine runner. The flow path is the same as when generating electricity, except the flow direction is reversed.

Pumped Storage Economics
Pumped storage plants rely upon the varying price of electricity to make a profit. Many thermal power plants (coal fired, gas fired etc.) cannot increase or reduce their MW output quickly because this would place large thermal stresses on the power plant components (water tube boiler, piping etc.). For this reason, thermal power plants produce almost as much power at night, as they do during the day.

saVRee PowerEngineering IndustrialEngineering

How Pumped Storage Power Plants Work (Hydropower)

Tesla Turbine | The interesting physics behind it

The maverick engineer Nikola Tesla made his contribution in the mechanical engineering field too. Look at one of his favorite inventions — a bladeless turbine, or Tesla Turbine. The Tesla turbine had a simple, unique design, yet it was able to beat the efficiency levels of steam turbines at that time. Normal turbines are complex in design, with blades of complicated geometry and stator parts. Nikola Tesla once said the Tesla turbine is his favorite invention and he even claimed an efficiency level of 97% for this turbine. Let’s start a design journey to understand this interesting piece of technology, and towards the end we will also verify Tesla’s efficiency claim.

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Tesla Turbine | The interesting physics behind it

How Pelton Hydroelectric Power Station Works

This video explains how a Pelton hydroelectric power station works. The 3D model uses a Pelton turbine to generate electricity. We also look at all the power station main components:

Sluice Gate
Penstock
Pelton Turbine
Generator
Electrical Transformer

The 3D power station uses a Pelton turbine, it should be noted that Francis and Kaplan turbine hydroelectric power plants have a slightly different setup. Pelton turbines are typically used where there is a very large head of pressure, they cannot be used for runoftheriver applications.

The 3D models in the video can be found at saVRee.com or 3Dknowledge.com.

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All the best,

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Sources
https://water.usgs.gov/edu/graphics/wuhytypicalplant.gif

http://www.turbinesinfo.com/wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/TheworkingschemeofTurgoturbine.jpg

How Pelton Hydroelectric Power Station Works

Hydroelectric Turbines Explained (Kaplan, Pelton, Francis, Reaction, Impulse)

Learn how hydroelectric turbines work! What are Kaplan, Pelton, and Francis turbines? What are reaction and impulse turbines? This video will teach you all of this and a lot more!

Like this video? Then check out our other videos!

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⚙️How Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Work! https://youtu.be/OyQ3SaU4KKU
⚙️How Power Grids Work! https://youtu.be/fUWRyhsutL8
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💡Plate Heat Exchangers Explained! https://youtu.be/7TTF4aU3Pcs

📚Want to learn more about engineering?
Then join saVRee to access over 45 hours of engineering video courses! New courses every month!
https://courses.savree.com/

Hope to see you on a course soon! 👋

🏫Want to use the 3D model in this video to present, instruct, or teach? Simply join saVRee! We have over 400 engineering models that will make your life a lot easier!
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📱Check out our socials!
https://linktr.ee/savree

📖You can learn more about engineering in our technical encyclopedia: https://savree.com/en/encyclopedia

▶️Introduction
Hydroelectric power stations supply much of the world’s electrical power. The main three types of hydro turbine are the Kaplan, Francis, and Pelton types. Each turbine has advantages and disadvantages depending upon the application. No one turbine is suitable for operation at all pressure heads and flow rates. Generally:

Kaplan – low pressure heads, low to high flow rates, small MW capacity.

Francis – wide ranging pressure heads and flow rates, can be used as a pump or turbine, small to high MW capacities.

Pelton – medium to high pressure heads, wide ranging flow rates, small to high MW capacities.

Turbines can be classified as impulse or reaction types. A Pelton turbine is an example of an impulse type turbine whilst Francis and Kaplan turbines are examples of reaction type turbines. Reaction turbines rely upon a continuous unbroken body of water from the headwater to the tailwater whilst impulse turbines do not.

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Hydroelectric Turbines Explained (Kaplan, Pelton, Francis, Reaction, Impulse)

S3 Ep.4: How Hydroelectric Power Technology Works

Aired 9/20/13: Do you know that worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24% of the world’s electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power? Also, the world’s hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil. So how does hydroelectric power technology really work? What is the biggest dam in the world & where does The Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam stand in the ranking when it is finished? This episode explains it all. Enjoy!

S3 Ep.4: How Hydroelectric Power Technology Works

Why don't perpetual motion machines ever work? – Netta Schramm

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Perpetual motion machines — devices that can do work indefinitely without any external energy source — have captured many inventors’ imaginations because they could totally transform our relationship with energy. There’s just one problem: they don’t work. Why not? Netta Schramm describes the pitfalls of perpetual motion machines.

Lesson by Netta Schramm, animation by TEDEd.

Why don't perpetual motion machines ever work? - Netta Schramm

Discovery – Hoa Binh Hydropower plant – Episode 5

Discovery Hoa Binh Hydropower plant Episode 5

Discovery - Hoa Binh Hydropower plant - Episode 5

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Trung quang

Tôi là Quang Trung, là một chuyên gia trong lĩnh vực các tin tức tổng hợp về các quốc gia trên thế giới. Tôi muốn chia sẻ những thông tin bổ ích này của mình đến mọi người.https://1111.com.vn/

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